Welcome !!!. In this section we are providing you some frequently asked PHP Interview Questions which will help you to win interview session easily. Candidates must read this section,Then by heart the questions and answers. Also, review sample answers and advice on how to answer these typical interview questions. PHP is an important part of the web world, and every web developer should have the basic knowledge in PHP.Common PHP interview questions, which should help you become a best PHP codder. We hope you find these questions useful. If you are an interviewer, Take the time to read the common interview questions you will most likely be asked.
PHP is a server side scripting language commonly used for web applications. PHP has many frameworks and cms for creating websites.Even a non technical person can cretae sites using its CMS.WordPress,osCommerce are the famus CMS of php.It is also an object oriented programming language like java,C-sharp etc.It is very eazy for learning
It is used to print a data in the webpage, Example: <?php echo 'Car insurance'; ?> , The following code print the text in the webpage
We can include a file using "include() " or "require()" function with file path as its parameter.
If the file is not found by require(), it will cause a fatal error and halt the execution of the script. If the file is not found by include(), a warning will be issued, but execution will continue.
require() includes and evaluates a specific file, while require_once() does that only if it has not been included before (on the same page). So, require_once() is recommended to use when you want to include a file where you have a lot of functions for example. This way you make sure you don't include the file more times and you will not get the "function re-declared" error.
With a GET method, you are sending your data via the URL. While, with A POST method, data is embedded in the form object and sent directly from your browser to the server. POST is a bit more safe than GET because GET could be stored in the history.
Eg : var $arr = array('apple', 'grape', 'lemon');
This is not actually a real function, It is a language construct. So you can use with out parentheses with its argument list.
Example print('PHP Interview questions');
print 'Job Interview ');
in_array used to checks if a value exists in an array
count() is used to count all elements in an array, or something in an object
Itís how they handle failures. If the file is not found by require(), it will cause a fatal error and halt the execution of the script. If the file is not found by include(), a warning will be issued, but execution will continue.
The main difference between sessions and cookies is that sessions are stored on the server, and cookies are stored on the userís computers in the text file format. Cookies can not hold multiple variables,But Session can hold multiple variables.We can set expiry for a cookie,The session only remains active as long as the browser is open.Users do not have access to the data you stored in Session,Since it is stored in the server.Session is mainly used for login/logout purpose while cookies using for user activity tracking
Setcookie("sample", "ram", time()+3600);
eg : echo $_COOKIE["user"];
Create session : session_start();
Set value into session : $_SESSION['USER_ID']=1;
Remove data from a session : unset($_SESSION['USER_ID'];
for,while,do while and foreach (NB: You should learn its usage)
$my_qry = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `u_id`='1'; ");
$result = mysql_fetch_array($my_qry);
$my_qry = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `u_id`='1'; ");
while($result = mysql_fetch_array($my_qry))
Syntax : array explode ( string $delimiter , string $string [, int $limit ] );
This function breaks a string into an array. Each of the array elements is a substring of string formed by splitting it on boundaries formed by the string delimiter.
Split function splits string into array by regular expression. Explode splits a string into array by string.
It is used to escapes special characters in a string for use in an SQL statement
if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] == 0)
"upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["name"]);
echo "Stored in: " . "upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["name"];
$filename = "/home/user/guest/newfile.txt";
$file = fopen( $filename, "w" );
if( $file == false )
echo ( "Error in opening new file" ); exit();
fwrite( $file, "This is a simple test\n" );
fclose( $file );
The trim() function removes whitespaces or other predefined characters from both sides of a string.
The header() function sends a raw HTTP header to a client browser.Remember that this function must be called before sending the actual out put.For example, You do not print any HTML element before using this function.
The following code can be used for it, header("Location:index.php");
exit() function is used to stop the execution of a page
index.php is the default name of the home page in php based sites
strlen() function used to find the length of a string
It is used to generate random numbers.If called without the arguments it returns a pseudo-random integer between 0 and getrandmax(). If you want a random number between 6 and 12 (inclusive), for example, use rand(6, 12).This function does not generate cryptographically safe values, and should not be used for cryptographic uses. If you want a cryptographically secure value, consider using openssl_random_pseudo_bytes() instead.
This function is used to determine if a variable is set and is not NULL
mysql_fetch_assoc function Fetch a result row as an associative array, While mysql_fetch_array() fetches an associative array, a numeric array, or both
Associative arrays are arrays that use string keys is called associative arrays.
"method" attribute determines how to send the form-data into the server.There are two methods, get and post. The default method is get.This sends the form information by appending it on the URL.Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send.
The action attribute determines where to send the form-data in the form submission.
The enctype attribute determines how the form-data should be encoded when submitting it to the server. We need to set enctype as "multipart/form-data" when we are using a form for uploading files
We can create input fields with same name for "name" attribute with squire bracket at the end of the name of the name attribute, It passes data as an array to PHP.
For instance :
<input name="MyArray" /> <input name="MyArray" /> <input name="MyArray" /> <input name="MyArray" />
Object orientation is a software/Web development methodology that is based on the modeling a real world system.An object is the core concept involved in the object orientation. An object is the copy of the real world enity.An object oriented model is a collection of objects and its inter-relationships
Using define() directive, like define ("MYCONSTANT",150)
To send email using PHP, you use the mail() function.This mail() function accepts 5 parameters as follows (the last 2 are optional). You need webserver, you can't send email from localhost. eg : mail($to,$subject,$message,$headers);
The date() function provides you with a means of retrieving the current date and time, applying the format integer parameters indicated in your script to the timestamp provided or the current local time if no timestamp is given. In simplified terms, passing a time parameter is optional - if you don't, the current timestamp will be used.
There is a good page in the php manual on the subject, in short mysql_pconnect() makes a persistent connection to the database which means a SQL link that do not close when the execution of your script ends. mysql_connect()provides only for the databasenewconnection while using mysql_pconnect , the function would first try to find a (persistent) link that's already open with the same host, username and password. If one is found, an identifier for it will be returned instead of opening a new connection... the connection to the SQL server will not be closed when the execution of the script ends. Instead, the link will remain open for future use.
It is used for sort an array by key order.
They are both variables. But $var is a variable with a fixed name. $$var is a variable who's name is stored in $var. For example, if $var contains "message", $$var is the same as $message.
MD5 PHP implements the MD5 hash algorithm using the md5 function,
eg : $encrypted_text = md5 ($msg);
mcrypt_encrypt :- string mcrypt_encrypt ( string $cipher , string $key , string $data , string $mode [, string $iv ] );
Encrypts plaintext with given parameters
htmlentities Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities This function is identical to htmlspecialchars() in all ways, except with htmlentities(), all characters which have HTML character entity equivalents are translated into these entities.
Unlink() deletes the given file from the file system.
session_id() function returns the session id for the current session.
Here are three basic types of runtime errors in PHP:
SQL injection is a malicious code injection technique.It exploiting SQL vulnerabilities in Web applications
Read/Write. Creates a new file. Returns FALSE and an error if file already exists
strpos() is used to find the position of the first occurrence of a substring in a string
PEAR is a framework and distribution system for reusable PHP components.The project seeks to provide a structured library of code, maintain a system for distributing code and for managing code packages, and promote a standard coding style.PEAR is broken into three classes: PEAR Core Components, PEAR Packages, and PECL Packages. The Core Components include the base classes of PEAR and PEAR_Error, along with database, HTTP, logging, and e-mailing functions. The PEAR Packages include functionality providing for authentication, networking, and file system features, as well as tools for working with XML and HTML templates.
This method is best when encode a string to used in a query part of a url. it returns a string in which all non-alphanumeric characters except -_. have replece with a percentege(%) sign . the urldecode->Decodes url to encode string as any %and other symbole are decode by the use of the urldecode() function.
In PHP, there are three types of runtime errors, they are:
These are important errors. Example: When we try to include () file which is not available. These errors are showed to the user by default but they will not result in ending the script.
These errors are non-critical and trivial errors that come across while executing the script in PHP. Example: trying to gain access the variable which is not defined. These errors are not showed to the users by default even if the default behavior is changed.
These are critical errors. Example: instantiating an object of a class which does not exist or a non-existent function is called. These errors results in termination of the script immediately and default behavior of PHP is shown to them when they take place. Twelve different error types are used to represent these variations internally.